Two millimeters below the surface of a cadaver’s cold skin, a number 12 surgical blade incises smoothly. Reflection of dermis reveals subcutaneous fat, sunflower yellow and overwhelmingly abundant. As the dissector’s eyes strategically scan the internal elements, a thread-like structure is found embedded within the cadaveric tissue. Frequently damaged by rookie gross anatomy students, the lateral sural cutaneous nerve is identified and isolated. A meticulous hand, acute visual sense, and a great deal of knowledge are necessary for an anatomical prosector to excel at this rare form of art.

While obtaining my first doctorate, I filled the role of senior prosector in the anatomy lab, a task typically reserved for elite anatomists, which created a powerful self-realization and redirected my life’s objective.  My purpose gradually presented itself while investing copious amounts of hours into thinking, studying, and working with cadavers. An innate artistic ability not only allows me to captivate detail but also to refine the hand motor skills necessary to execute meticulous dissections of human specimens.  

I aspire to produce work that will outlive me and live by the statement of Ben Franklin, "Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing." Trained in science, I objectify uncertainty from a logical perspective. My artistic side allows me to reveal answers to scientific questions from an imaginative angle. With these character traits, I am able to weave the web of the scientific literature. 

By fearing what we are inside, there is little hope in accepting anything beyond ourselves. While I am receptive to the aesthetic beauty that is available to everyone, I also attempt to reveal a greater beauty by understanding the wondrous design beneath the skin of the noble men and women who have donated their bodies to science.

-Dr. Frank Scali has dissected human specimens over the course of his graduate studies for prosection demonstration, research purposes, Gray's Anatomy, and other scientific publications. 

  

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles/Abstracts/Art
  1. Scali F. Gross anatomy of the deep external rotator muscles of the hip with the sciatic nerve. (Graphite Illustration: Dynamic Ultrasonography of the Deep External Rotator Musculature of the Hip: A Descriptive Study: Inset B in Figures 1-5, inset b). PM&R. 2015, Nov; 8(7): 640-650. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.17050.03523.
  2. Scali F, Nash LG, Pontell ME. Defining the Morphology and Distribution of the Alar Fascia: A Sheet Plastination Investigation. Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology. 2015, Oct; 124(10): 814-819. 
  3. Scali F. Lateral head and neck dissection of a female. (Graphite Illustration: Defining the Morphology and Distribution of the Alar Fascia: A Sheet Plastination Investigation; Figures 1-4). Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2015, Oct; 124(10): 816-818.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13694.59207
  4. Enix DE, Sudkamp K, Scali F, Keating R, Welk A. Management of Acute Patellar Dislocation: A Case Report. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2015, Sep; 14(3): 212-219.
  5. Scali F, Pontell ME, Nash LG, Enix DE. Investigation of meningomyovertebral structures within the upper cervical epidural space: a sheet plastination study with clinical implications. The Spine Journal. 2015, Jul; 15(11): 2417-2424.
  6. Scali F. Lateral dislocation of the patella with sprained medial patellofemoral ligament. (Graphite Illustration: Management of Acute Patellar Dislocation: A Case Report; Figure 6). Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2015, Jul; 14(3): 215.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27116.36488  
  7. Scali F. The deep ligamentous structures of the left hand: with and without acute Stener lesion. (Graphite Illustration: Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report; Figures 1a-c). Journal of Ultrasound. 2015, Jun; 19(2): 149.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20405.47842
  8. Enix DE, Battaglia P, Facemyer E, Kelly R, Scali F. Elastin fiber content in the dura mater of the cervical spine. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2015, Jun; 14(2): 125 - 126.
  9. Mattox R, Welk AB, Battaglia PJ, Scali F, Nunez M, Kettner NW. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report. Journal of Ultrasound. 2015, Jun; 19(2): 149-152. 
  10. Enix DE, Sudkamp K, Keating R, Aamodt A, Scali F. Tricipital supernumerary head of the biceps brachii muscle: an anatomical case study and clinical implications. Journal of Chiropractic Education. 2015, Mar; 29(1): 95.
  11. Enix DE, Scali F, Pontell ME. The cervical myodural bridge. A review of the literature and clinical implications. Journal of Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2014, Jun; 58(2): 184-192. 
  12. Enix DE, Welk A, Keating R, Scali F. Patellar dislocation: a case report. Journal of Chiropractic Education. 2014, Apr; 28(1): 88.
  13. Scali F. Linear representation of diagnostic ultrasound images. (Digital Line Art: Sonographic measurement of the normal suprascapular nerve and omohyoid muscle; Figures 1-4). Manual Therapy. 2014, Apr; 19(2): 167.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28794.08648
  14. Pontell ME, Scali F, Enix DE, Battaglia PJ, Marshall E. Histological examination of the human obliquus capitis inferior myodural bridge. Annals of Anatomy. 2013, Dec; 195(6): 522-526. 
  15. Pontell ME, Scali F, Marshall E, Enix D. The obliquus capitis inferior myodural bridge. Clinical Anatomy. 2013, May; 26(4): 450-454.
  16. Scali F. Suboccipital muscles of the cervical spine. (Graphite Illustration: Histological analysis of the rectus capitis posterior major’s myodural bridge; Figure 1). The Spine Journal. 2013, May; 13(5): 559. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12016.87047
  17. Scali F, Pontell ME, Enix DE, Marshall E. Histological analysis of the rectus capitis posterior major's myodural bridge. The Spine Journal. 2013, May; 13(5): 558-563. 
  18. Scali F, Pontell ME, Welk AB, Malmstrom TK, Marshall E, Kettner NW. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the atlanto-axial interspace. Clinical Anatomy. 2013, May; 26(4): 444-449.
  19. Scali F, Quirk D. Deep dissection of the cervical spine depicting suboccipital structures and atlanto-occipital myodural bridge. (Colored Illustration: Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the atlanto-axial interspace: Figure 1). Clinical Anatomy. 2012, May; 24(4): 445. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25438.64329
  20. Pontell M, Scali F, Marshall E. A unique variation in the course of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinical Anatomy. 2011, Nov; 24(8): 968-970. 
  21. Scali F. Brachial/axillary region with a musculocutaneous nerve variation. (Graphite Illustration: A unique variation in the course of the musculocutaneous nerve: Figure 1). Clinical Anatomy. 2011, Nov; 24(8): 211. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18727.75685
  22. Scali F, Marsili ES, Pontell ME. Anatomical connection between the rectus capitis posterior major and the dura mater. Spine. 2011, Dec; 36(25): E1612-1614.
  23. Cho JC, Haun DW, Kettner NW, Scali F, Clark TB. Sonography of the normal greater occipital nerve and obliquus capitis inferior muscle. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2010, Jul; 38(6): 299-304.
  24. Cho JC, Haun D, Kettner N, Clark T, Scali F. Normative Evaluation of the Cross-Sectional Area of the Greater Occipital Nerve and the Obliquus Capitis Inferior Muscle Using Ultrasonography. The Journal of Chiropractic Education. 2010, Apr; 24(1): 88.
  25. Kaeser MA, Scali F, Lanzisera FP, Bub GA, Kettner NW. Tumefactive multiple sclerosis: an uncommon diagnostic challenge. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2010, Mar; 10(1): 29-35.
  26. Scali F. Skeletal system of the pelvis, lower extremities, and feet. (Graphite Illustration: The Effects of Manipulation and Concentric Motion of the Ilium around the Sacrum: Figure 1). Journal of Chiropractic Education. 2009, Mar; 23(1): 66.
Peer Reviewed Journal Articles/Abstracts Pending
  1. Enix DE, Scali F, Facemyer E, Kelly R. Elastin fiber content in the dura mater of the cervical spine. Spine. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Submitted.
  2. Enix DE, Scali F, Smith D. Histological variation of the iliolumbar ligament. The Spine Journal. 2016, Aug; Pub Status: Submitted.
  3. Enix DE, Scali F, Sudkamp K, Keating R. Tricipital supernumerary head of the biceps brachii muscle: an anatomical case study and clinical implications. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Accepted.
  4. Enix De, Gillam C, Scali F. Accessory rectus capitis posterior major muscle with cervical myodural bridges. Case Reports in Medicine. 2016, Aug; Pub Status: Submitted.
  5. Mattox R, Battaglia P, Kettner N, Scali F. Sonographic findings of distal intersection syndrome progressing to EPL tendon rupture: a case report. Journal of Ultrasound. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Accepted.
  6. Scali F. Neurovascular morphology of the cubital fossa in a specimen with biceps variation. (Graphite  Illustration: Tricipital supernumerary head of the biceps brachii muscle: an anatomical case study and clinical implications. Figure 2). 
  7. Tricipital supernumerary head of the biceps brachii muscle: an anatomical case study and clinical implications. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Accepted.
  8. Scali F. The overlapping morphology of dorsal antebrachial tendons. (Colored Illustration: Distal intersection syndrome progressing to extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture: a case report with sonographic findings: Figure 1). Journal of Ultrasound. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Accepted.
  9. Scali F, Nash LG. The origin and morphological presentation of the radial recurrent artery in cadaveric specimens with superficial brachioradial artery variations. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2016, Sep; Pub Status: Submitted.
Poster Presentations
  1. Nwosu IA, Miller AJ, Carlson L, Scali F, Warfield DJ, Tornatore M, Perez-Guma J, Nash LG, Ambron RT. (June, 2015). Transramic obturator artery and vein: normal human variants in Dutch and American cadaveric population. Poster presented at: American Association of Clinical Anatomists; Las Vegas, NV, USA. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32149.52965
  2. Enix DE, Scali F, Battaglia P, Facemeyer E, Kelly R. (May, 2015). Elastin fiber content in the dura mater of the cervical spine Poster presented at: World Federation of Chiropractic; Athens, GRC.
  3. Enix DE, Sudkamp K, Scali F, Keating R, Aamodt A. (March, 2015). Tricipital supernumerary head of the biceps brachii muscle, an anatomical variant with clinical implications Poster presented at: American College of Chiropractic Research Agenda Conference; Las Vegas, NV, USA.
  4. Mattox R, Welk A, Battaglia P, Scali F, Nunez B, Kettner N. (March, 2015). Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report Poster presented at: American College of Chiropractic Research Agenda Conference; Las Vegas, NV, USA.
  5. Scali F, Pontell M, Enix DE. (April, 2013). Proprioceptive neurons in the cervical myodural bridge: a feedback mechanism of dural tension monitoring Poster presented at: World Federation of Chiropractic; Durban, ZAF.
  6. Cho JC, Haun D, Kettner N, Clark T, Scali F. (April, 2010). Normative Evaluation of the Cross-Sectional Area of the Greater Occipital Nerve and the Obliquus Capitis Inferior Muscle Using Ultrasonography Poster presented at: ACC Conference Proceedings; Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Peer Reviewed Online Publications
Non-Peer Reviewed Online Publications

 Textbooks
Patents